—(1) Subject to subsections (2) and (3), where any person is charged with an offence, any statement made by the person, whether it is oral or in writing, made at any time, whether before or after the person is charged and whether or not in the course of any investigation carried out by any law enforcement agency, is admissible in evidence at his trial; and if that person tenders himself as a witness, any such statement may be used in cross-examination and for the purpose of impeaching his credit.
(2) Where a statement referred to in subsection (1) is made by any person to a police officer, no such statement shall be used in evidence if it is made to a police officer below the rank of sergeant.
(3) The court shall refuse to admit the statement of an accused or allow it to be used in the manner referred to in subsection (1) if the making of the statement appears to the court to have been caused by any inducement, threat or promise having reference to the charge against the accused, proceeding from a person in authority and sufficient, in the opinion of the court, to give the accused grounds which would appear to him reasonable for supposing that by making the statement he would gain any advantage or avoid any evil of a temporal nature in reference to the proceedings against him.
Explanation 1.— — If a statement is obtained from an accused by a person in authority who had acted in such a manner that his acts tend to sap and have in fact sapped the free will of the maker of the statement, and the court is of the opinion that such acts gave the accused grounds which would appear to the accused reasonable for supposing that by making the statement, he would gain any advantage or avoid any evil of a temporal nature in reference to the proceedings against him, such acts will amount to a threat, inducement or promise, as the case may be, which will render the statement inadmissible.
Explanations 2.— — If a statement is otherwise admissible, it will not be rendered inadmissible merely because it was made in any of the following circumstances:
under a promise of secrecy, or in consequence of a deception practised on the accused for the purpose of obtaining it;
when the accused was intoxicated;
in answer to questions which the accused need not have answered whatever may have been the form of those questions;
where the accused was not warned that he was not bound to make the statement and that evidence of it might be given against him; or
(4) If the statement referred to in subsection (3) is made after the impression caused by any such inducement, threat or promise referred to in that subsection has, in the opinion of the court, been fully removed, it shall be admissible.
(5) When more persons than one are being tried jointly for the same offence, and a confession made by one of such persons affecting himself and some other of such persons is proved, the court may take into consideration the confession as against the other person as well as against the person who makes the confession.
Explanation— —“Offence” as used in this section includes the abetment of or attempt to commit the offence.
A and B are jointly tried for the murder of C. It is proved that A said “B and I murdered C”. The court may consider the effect of this confession as against B.
A is on trial for the murder of C. There is evidence to show that C was murdered by A and B and that B said “ A and I murdered C”. This statement may not be taken into consideration by the court against A as B is not being jointly tried.
(6) Notwithstanding any other provision in this section —
where a person is charged with any offence in relation to the making or contents of any statement made by him to any officer of a law enforcement agency in the course of any investigation carried out by the agency, that statement may be used as evidence in the prosecution;
any statement made by the accused in the course of an identification parade may be used as evidence; and
when any fact or thing is discovered in consequence of information received from a person accused of any offence in the custody of any officer of a law enforcement agency, so much of such information as relates distinctly to the fact or thing thereby discovered may be proved.
(7) In this section, “confession”, in relation to any person who is tried for an offence, means any statement made at any time by him stating or suggesting the inference that he committed that offence.