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Carriage by Air Act
(CHAPTER 32A)

(Original Enactment: Act 20 of 1988)

REVISED EDITION 2001
(31st December 2001)
An Act to give effect to the provisions of the Warsaw Convention concerning international carriage by air and the Convention as amended by the Hague Protocol and the Montreal Protocol No. 4 and for purposes connected therewith.
[16th September 1988]
Short title
1.  This Act may be cited as the Carriage by Air Act.
Interpretation
2.  In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires —
“court”, in an arbitration allowed by the Warsaw Convention, the Warsaw (Hague) Convention or the Warsaw (Hague) (Montreal) Convention including an arbitrator;
“Hague Protocol” means the Protocol to amend the Warsaw Convention opened for signature at the Hague on 28th September 1955;
“Montreal Protocol No. 4” means Protocol No. 4 to amend the Warsaw (Hague) Convention opened for signature at Montreal on 25th September 1975;
“Warsaw Convention” means the original Convention for the unification of certain rules relating to international carriage by air opened for signature at Warsaw on 12th October 1929, the text of which is set out in the Second Schedule;
“Warsaw (Hague) Convention” means the Warsaw Convention as amended by the Hague Protocol, the text of which is set out in the First Schedule;
“Warsaw (Hague) (Montreal) Convention” means the Warsaw (Hague) Convention as amended by the Montreal Protocol No. 4, the text of which is set out in the Third Schedule.
Conventions to have force of law
3.
—(1)  Subject to this Act, the provisions of the Warsaw Convention, the Warsaw (Hague) Convention and the Warsaw (Hague) (Montreal) Convention shall, so far as they relate to the rights and liabilites of carriers, carriers’ employees and agents, passengers, consignors, consignees and other persons, have the force of law in Singapore in relation to any carriage by air to which the Warsaw Convention, the Warsaw (Hague) Convention or the Warsaw (Hague) (Montreal) Convention, as the case may require, applies irrespective of the nationality of the aircraft performing that carriage.
(2)  If there is any inconsistency between any of the texts set out in the First, Second and Third Schedules and the authentic text in the French language of the Warsaw Convention, or the Hague Protocol or the Montreal Protocol No. 4, as the case may be, the authentic French text shall prevail.
Certification of High Contracting Parties
4.
—(1)  The Minister may, by order published in the Gazette, from time to time certify who are the High Contracting Parties to the Warsaw Convention, the High Contracting Parties to the Warsaw (Hague) Convention and the High Contracting Parties to the Warsaw (Hague) (Montreal) Convention, in respect of what territories they are respectively parties and to what extent they have availed themselves of the provisions of the Additional Protocol at the end of the Warsaw Convention, the Warsaw (Hague) Convention and the Warsaw (Hague) (Montreal) Convention.
(2)  Article 40A(2) in the First and Third Schedules shall not be read as extending references in those Schedules to the territory of a High Contracting Party (except such as are references to the territory of any State, whether a High Contracting Party or not) to include any territory in respect of which that High Contracting Party is not a party.
(3)  An order in force under this section shall be conclusive evidence of the matters so certified.
(4)  An order made under this section may contain such transitional and other consequential provisions as appear to the Minister to be expedient.
Fatal accidents
5.  References in section 20 of the Civil Law Act (Cap. 43) to a wrongful act, neglect or default shall include references to any occurrence which gives rise to liability under Article 17 in the First, Second and Third Schedules.
Limitations of liability
6.
—(1)  It is declared that the limitations on liability in Article 22 in the First, Second and Third Schedules shall apply whatever the nature of the proceedings by which liability may be enforced and that, in particular the limitation for each passenger in Article 22(1) in the First, Second and Third Schedules shall apply to the aggregate liability of the carrier in all proceedings which may be brought against him under the law of Singapore, together with any proceedings brought against him outside Singapore.
(2)  A court before which proceedings are brought to enforce a liability which is limited by Article 22 in the First, Second or Third Schedule may at any stage of the proceedings make any such order as appears to the court to be just and equitable in view of the provisions of that Article, and of any other proceedings which have been, or are likely to be, commenced in Singapore or elsewhere to enforce the liability in whole or in part.
(3)  Without prejudice to subsection (2), a court before which proceedings are brought to enforce a liability which is limited by Article 22 in the First, Second or Third Schedule shall, where the liability is, or may be, partly enforceable in other proceedings in Singapore or elsewhere, have jurisdiction —
(a)
to award an amount less than the court would have awarded if the limitation applied solely to the proceedings before the court; or
(b)
to make any part of its award conditional on the result of any other proceedings.
(4)  The Minister may, by order published in the Gazette, from time to time specify the respective amounts which, for the purposes of Article 22 in the First, Second and Third Schedules, are to be taken as equivalent to the sums expressed in francs or Special Drawing Rights, as the case may be, which are mentioned in that Article.
(5)  References in this section to Article 22 in the First and Third Schedules shall, subject to any necessary modifications, include references to that Article as applied by Article 25A in the First and Third Schedules respectively.
Notice of partial loss
7.  In Article 26(2) in the First, Second and Third Schedules, the references to damage shall be construed as including loss of part of the baggage or cargo in question and the references to the receipt of baggage or cargo shall, in relation to loss of part of it, be construed as receipt of the remainder of it.
Time for bringing proceedings
8.
—(1)  No action against a carrier’s employee or agent which arises out of damage to which the Warsaw Convention, the Warsaw (Hague) Convention or the Warsaw (Hague) (Montreal) Convention relates shall, if he was acting within the scope of his employment, be brought after more than 2 years, reckoned from the date of arrival at the destination or from the date on which the aircraft ought to have arrived, or from the date on which the carriage stopped.
(2)  Article 29 in the First, Second and Third Schedules shall not be read as applying to any proceedings for contribution between persons liable for any damage to which the Warsaw Convention, the Warsaw (Hague) Convention or the Warsaw (Hague) (Montreal) Convention relates.
(3)  Subject to sections 4 and 29 of the Limitation Act (Cap. 163), no action shall be brought by a person, liable for any damage to which the Warsaw Convention, the Warsaw (Hague) Convention or the Warsaw (Hague) (Montreal) Convention relates, to recover contribution from any other person in respect of the damage after the expiration of 2 years from the time when a court gives judgment or makes an award against the person seeking to recover the contribution.
(4)  Subsections (1), (2) and (3) and Article 29 in the First, Second and Third Schedules shall have effect as if references in those provisions to an action included references to an arbitration.
(5)  Section 30(3) and (4) of the Limitation Act (which determine the time at which an arbitration is deemed to be commenced) shall apply for the purposes of subsection (4).
Contributory negligence
9.  It is declared that, for the purposes of Article 21 in the First, Second and Third Schedules, the provisions of the Contributory Negligence and Personal Injuries Act (Cap. 54) are provisions of the law of Singapore under which a court may exonerate the carrier wholly or partly from his liability.
Power to exclude aircraft in use for military purposes
10.
—(1)  The Minister may, by order published in the Gazette, direct that this section shall apply, or shall cease to apply, to Singapore or any other State specified in the order.
(2)  The Warsaw (Hague) Convention and the Warsaw (Hague) (Montreal) Convention shall not apply to the carriage of persons, cargo and baggage for the military authorities of a State to which this section applies in aircraft registered in that State if the whole capacity of the aircraft has been reserved by or on behalf of those authorities.
Actions against High Contracting Parties
11.
—(1)  Every High Contracting Party to the Warsaw Convention, the Warsaw (Hague) Convention or the Warsaw (Hague) (Montreal) Convention who has not availed himself of the provisions of the Additional Protocol at the end of the First, Second or Third Schedule shall, for the purposes of any action brought in a court in Singapore in accordance with Article 28 in the First, Second or Third Schedule to enforce a claim in respect of carriage undertaken by him, be deemed to have submitted to the jurisdiction of that court, and accordingly the Rules of Court (Cap. 322, R 5) may provide for the manner in which any action is to be commenced and carried on.
(2)  Nothing in this section shall authorise the issue of execution against the property of any High Contracting Party.
Application to carriage by air not governed by Warsaw (Hague) Convention and Warsaw (Hague) (Montreal) Convention
12.  The Minister may make regulations applying the provisions of the First and Third Schedules and any provision of this Act to such carriage by air, not being international carriage as defined in the First and Third Schedules, as may be specified in the regulations, subject to such exceptions, adaptations and modifications, if any, as may be specified.
Application to Government
13.  This Act shall bind the Government.
FIRST SCHEDULE
the Warsaw Convention With the Amendments Made to It by the Hague Protocol
(Words in square brackets in the text are words substituted for or added to the original Warsaw Convention by Chapter I of the Hague Protocol)
Convention FOR
Chapter 1

Scope — Definitions

Article 1
(1)  This Convention applies to all international carriage of persons, baggage or cargo performed by aircraft for reward. It applies equally to gratuitous carriage by aircraft performed by an air transport undertaking.
[(2) For the purposes of this Convention, the expression international carriage means any carriage in which, according to the agreement between the parties, the place of departure and the place of destination, whether or not there be a break in the carriage or a transhipment, are situated either within the territories of two High Contracting Parties or within the territory of a single High Contracting Party if there is an agreed stopping place within the territory of another State, even if that State is not a High Contracting Party. Carriage between two points within the territory of a single High Contracting Party without an agreed stopping place within the territory of another State is not international carriage for the purposes of this Convention.
(3)  Carriage to be performed by several successive air carriers is deemed, for the purposes of this Convention, to be one undivided carriage if it has been regarded by the parties as a single operation, whether it had been agreed upon under the form of a single contract or of a series of contracts, and it does not lose its international character merely because one contract or a series of contracts is to be performed entirely within the territory of the same State.]
Article 2
(1)  This Convention applies to carriage performed by the State or by legally constituted public bodies provided it falls within the conditions laid down in Article 1.
[(2) This Convention shall not apply to carriage of mail and postal packages.]
Chapter II
Documents of Carriage

Section 1 — Passenger Ticket

Article 3
[(1) In respect of the carriage of passengers a ticket shall be delivered containing:
(a)
an indication of the places of departure and destination;
(b)
if the places of departure and destination are within the territory of a single High Contracting Party, one or more agreed stopping places being within the territory of another State, an indication of at least one such stopping place;
(c)
a notice to the effect that, if the passenger’s journey involves an ultimate destination or stop in a country other than the country of departure, the Warsaw Convention may be applicable and that the Convention governs and in most cases limits the liability of carriers for death or personal injury and in respect of loss of or damage to baggage.
(2)  The passenger ticket shall constitute prima facie evidence of the conclusion and conditions of the contract of carriage. The absence, irregularity or loss of the passenger ticket does not affect the existence or the validity of the contract of carriage which shall, none the less, be subject to the rules of this Convention. Nevertheless, if, with the consent of the carrier, the passenger embarks without a passenger ticket having been delivered, or if the ticket does not include the notice required by paragraph (1) (c) of this Article, the carrier shall not be entitled to avail himself of the provisions of Article 22.]
Section 2 — Baggage Check
Article 4
[(1) In respect of the carriage of registered baggage, a baggage check shall be delivered, which, unless combined with or incorporated in a passenger ticket which complies with the provisions of Article 3, paragraph (1), shall contain:
(a)
an indication of the places of departure and destination;
(b)
if the places of departure and destination are within the territory of a single High Contracting Party, one or more agreed stopping places being within the territory of another State, an indication of at least one such stopping place;
(c)
a notice to the effect that, if the carriage involves an ultimate destination or stop in a country other than the country of departure, the Warsaw Convention may be applicable and that the Convention governs and in most cases limits the liability of carriers in respect of loss of or damage to baggage.
(2)  The baggage check shall constitute prima facie evidence of the registration of the baggage and of the conditions of the contract of carriage. The absence, irregularity or loss of the baggage check does not affect the existence or the validity of the contract of carriage which shall, none the less, be subject to the rules of this Convention. Nevertheless, if the carrier takes charge of the baggage without a baggage check having been delivered or if the baggage check (unless combined with or incorporated in the passenger ticket which complies with the provisions of Article 3, paragraph (1) (c)) does not include the notice required by paragraph (1) (c) of this Article, he shall not be entitled to avail himself of the provisions of Article 22, paragraph (2).]
Section 3 — Air Waybill
Article 5
(1)  Every carrier of cargo has the right to require the consignor to make out and hand over to him a document called an “air waybill”; every consignor has the right to require the carrier to accept this document.
(2)  The absence, irregularity or loss of this document does not affect the existence or the validity of the contract of carriage which shall, subject to the provisions of Article 9, be none the less governed by the rules of this Convention.
Article 6
(1)  The air waybill shall be made out by the consignor in 3 original parts and be handed over with the cargo.
(2)  The first part shall be marked “for the carrier”, and shall be signed by the consignor. The second part shall be marked “for the consignee”; it shall be signed by the consignor and by the carrier and shall accompany the cargo. The third part shall be signed by the carrier and handed by him to the consignor after the cargo has been accepted.
[(3) The carrier shall sign prior to the loading of the cargo on board the aircraft.]
(4)  The signature of the carrier may be stamped; that of the consignor may be printed or stamped.
(5)  If, at the request of the consignor, the carrier makes out the air waybill, he shall be deemed, subject to proof to the contrary, to have done so on behalf of the consignor.
Article 7
The carrier of cargo has the right to require the consignor to make out separate waybills when there is more than one package.
Article 8
[The air waybill shall contain:
(a)
an indication of the places of departure and destination;
(b)
if the places of departure and destination are within the territory of a single High Contracting Party, one or more agreed stopping places being within the territory of another State, an indication of at least one such stopping place;
(c)
a notice to the consignor to the effect that, if the carriage involves an ultimate destination or stop in a country other than the country of departure, the Warsaw Convention may be applicable and that the Convention governs and in most cases limits the liability of carriers in respect of loss of or damage to cargo.]
Article 9
[If, with the consent of the carrier, cargo is loaded on board the aircraft without an air waybill having been made out, or if the air waybill does not include the notice required by Article 8, paragraph (c), the carrier shall not be entitled to avail himself of the provisions of Article 22, paragraph (2).]
Article 10
(1)  The consignor is responsible for the correctness of the particulars and statements relating to the cargo which he inserts in the air waybill.
[(2) The consignor shall indemnify the carrier against all damage suffered by him, or by any other person to whom the carrier is liable, by reason of the irregularity, incorrectness or incompleteness of the particulars and statements furnished by the consignor.]
Article 11
(1)  The air waybill is prima facie evidence of the conclusion of the contract, of the receipt of the cargo and of the conditions of carriage.
(2)  The statements in the air waybill relating to the weight, dimensions and packing of the cargo, as well as those relating to the number of packages, are prima facie evidence of the facts stated; those relating to the quantity, volume and condition of the cargo do not constitute evidence against the carrier except so far as they both have been and are stated in the air waybill to have been, checked by him in the presence of the consignor, or relate to the apparent condition of the cargo.
Article 12
(1)  Subject to his liability to carry out all his obligations under the contract of carriage, the consignor has the right to dispose of the cargo by withdrawing it at the aerodrome of departure or destination, or by stopping it in the course of the journey on any landing, or by calling for it to be delivered at the place of destination or in the course of the journey to a person other than the consignee named in the air waybill, or by requiring it to be returned to the aerodrome of departure. He must not exercise this right of disposition in such a way as to prejudice the carrier or other consignors and he must repay any expenses occasioned by the exercise of this right.
(2)  If it is impossible to carry out the orders of the consignor the carrier must so inform him forthwith.
(3)  If the carrier obeys the orders of the consignor for the disposition of the cargo without requiring the production of the part of the air waybill delivered to the latter, he will be liable, without prejudice to his right of recovery from the consignor, for any damage which may be caused thereby to any person who is lawfully in possession of that part of the air waybill.
(4)  The right conferred on the consignor ceases at the moment when that of the consignee begins in accordance with Article 13. Nevertheless, if the consignee declines to accept the air waybill or the cargo, or if he cannot be communicated with, the consignor resumes his right of disposition.
Article 13
(1)  Except in the circumstances set out in the preceding Article, the consignee is entitled, on arrival of the cargo at the place of destination, to require the carrier to hand over to him the air waybill and to deliver the cargo to him, on payment of the charges due and on complying with the conditions of carriage set out in the air waybill.
(2)  Unless it is otherwise agreed, it is the duty of the carrier to give notice to the consignee as soon as the cargo arrives.
(3)  If the carrier admits the loss of the cargo, or if the cargo has not arrived at the expiration of 7 days after the date on which it ought to have arrived, the consignee is entitled to put into force against the carrier the rights which flow from the contract of carriage.
Article 14
The consignor and the consignee can respectively enforce all the rights given them by Articles 12 and 13, each in his own name, whether he is acting in his own interest or in the interest of another, provided that he carries out the obligations imposed by the contract.
Article 15
(1)  Articles 12, 13 and 14 do not affect either the relations of the consignor or the consignee with each other or the mutual relations of third parties whose rights are derived either from the consignor or from the consignee.
(2)  The provisions of Articles 12, 13 and 14 can only be varied by express provision in the air waybill.
[(3) Nothing in this Convention prevents the issue of a negotiable air waybill.]
Article 16
(1)  The consignor must furnish such information and attach to the air waybill such documents as are necessary to meet the formalities of customs, octroi or police before the cargo can be delivered to the consignee. The consignor is liable to the carrier for any damage occasioned by the absence, insufficiency or irregularity of any such information or documents, unless the damage is due to the fault of the carrier or his servants or agents.
(2)  The carrier is under no obligation to enquire into the correctness or sufficiency of such information or documents.
Chapter III
Liability of the Carrier
Article 17
The carrier is liable for damage sustained in the event of the death or wounding of a passenger or any other bodily injury suffered by a passenger, if the accident which caused the damage so sustained took place on board the aircraft or in the course of any of the operations of embarking or disembarking.
Article 18
(1)  The carrier is liable for damage sustained in the event of the destruction or loss of, or of damage to, any registered baggage or any cargo, if the occurrence which caused the damage so sustained took place during the carriage by air.
(2)  The carriage by air within the meaning of the preceding paragraph comprises the period during which the baggage or cargo is in charge of the carrier, whether in an aerodrome or on board an aircraft, or, in the case of a landing outside an aerodrome, in any place whatsoever.
(3)  The period of the carriage by air does not extend to any carriage by land, by sea or by river performed outside an aerodrome. If, however, such a carriage takes place in the performance of a contract for carriage by air, for the purpose of loading, delivery or transhipment, any damage is presumed, subject to proof to the contrary, to have been the result of an event which took place during the carriage by air.
Article 19
The carrier is liable for damage occasioned by delay in the carriage by air of passengers, baggage or cargo.
Article 20
The carrier is not liable if he proves that he and his servants and agents have taken all necessary measures to avoid the damage or that it was impossible for him and them to take such measures.
Article 21
If the carrier proves that the damage was caused by or contributed to by the negligence of the injured person the court may, in accordance with the provisions of its own law, exonerate the carrier wholly or partly from his liability.
Article 22
[(1) In the carriage of persons the liability of the carrier for each passenger is limited to the sum of 250,000 francs. Where, in accordance with the law of the court seised of the case, damages may be awarded in the form of periodical payments, the equivalent capital value of the said payments shall not exceed 250,000 francs. Nevertheless, by special contract, the carrier and the passenger may agree to a higher limit of liability.
(2)    (a)  In the carriage of registered baggage and of cargo, the liability of the carrier is limited to a sum of 250 francs per kilogramme, unless the passenger or consignor has made, at the time when the package was handed over to the carrier, a special declaration of interest in delivery at destination and has paid a supplementary sum if the case so requires. In that case the carrier will be liable to pay a sum not exceeding the declared sum, unless he proves that that sum is greater than the passenger’s or consignor’s actual interest in delivery at destination.
(b)
In the case of loss, damage or delay of part of registered baggage or cargo, or of any object contained therein, the weight to be taken into consideration in determining the amount to which the carrier’s liability is limited shall be only the total weight of the package or packages concerned. Nevertheless, when the loss, damage or delay of a part of the registered baggage or cargo or of an object contained therein, affects the value of other packages covered by the same baggage check or the same air waybill, the total weight of such package or packages shall also be taken into consideration in determining the limit of liability.
(3)  As regards objects of which the passenger takes charge himself the liability of the carrier is limited to 5,000 francs per passenger.
(4)  The limits prescribed in this Article shall not prevent the court from awarding, in accordance with its own law, in addition, the whole or part of the court costs and of the other expenses of the litigation incurred by the plaintiff. The foregoing provision shall not apply if the amount of the damages awarded, excluding court costs and other expenses of the litigation, does not exceed the sum which the carrier has offered in writing to the plaintiff within a period of 6 months from the date of the occurrence causing the damage, or before the commencement of the action, if that is later.
(5)  The sums mentioned in francs in this Article shall be deemed to refer to a currency unit consisting of 65 1/2 milligrammes of gold of millesimal fineness 900. These sums may be converted into national currencies in round figures. Conversion of the sums into national currencies other than gold shall, in case of judicial proceedings, be made according to the gold value of such currencies at the date of the judgment.]
Article 23
(1)  Any provision tending to relieve the carrier of liability or to fix a lower limit than that which is laid down in this Convention shall be null and void, but the nullity of any such provision does not involve the nullity of the whole contract, which shall remain subject to the provisions of this Convention.
[(2) Paragraph (1) of this Article shall not apply to provisions governing loss or damage resulting from the inherent defect, quality or vice of the cargo carried.]
Article 24
(1)  In the cases covered by Articles 18 and 19 any action for damages, however founded, can only be brought subject to the conditions and limits set out in this Convention.
(2)  In the cases covered by Article 17 the provisions of the preceding paragraph also apply, without prejudice to the questions as to who are the persons who have the right to bring suit and what are their respective rights.
Article 25
[The limits of liability specified in Article 22 shall not apply if it is proved that the damage resulted from an act or omission of the carrier, his servants or agents, done with intent to cause damage or recklessly and with knowledge that damage would probably result; provided that, in the case of such act or omission of a servant or agent, it is also proved that he was acting within the scope of his employment.]
Article 25A
[(1) If an action is brought against a servant or agent of the carrier arising out of damage to which this Convention relates, such servant or agent, if he proves that he acted within the scope of his employment, shall be entitled to avail himself of the limits of liability which that carrier himself is entitled to invoke under Article 22.
(2)  The aggregate of the amounts recoverable from the carrier, his servants and agents, in that case, shall not exceed the said limits.
(3)  The provisions of paragraphs (1) and (2) of this Article shall not apply if it is proved that the damage resulted from an act or omission of the servant or agent done with intent to cause damage or recklessly and with knowledge that damage would probably result.]
Article 26
(1)  Receipt by the person entitled to delivery of baggage or cargo without complaint is prima facie evidence that the same has been delivered in good condition and in accordance with the document of carriage.
[(2) In the case of damage, the person entitled to delivery must complain to the carrier forthwith after the discovery of the damage, and, at the latest, within 7 days from the date of receipt in the case of baggage and 14 days from the date of receipt in the case of cargo. In the case of delay the complaint must be made at the latest within 21 days from the date on which the baggage or cargo has been placed at his disposal.]
(3)  Every complaint must be made in writing upon the document of carriage or by separate notice in writing despatched within the times aforesaid.
(4)  Failing complaint within the times aforesaid, no action shall lie against the carrier, save in the case of fraud on his part.
Article 27
In the case of the death of the person liable, an action for damages lies in accordance with the terms of this Convention against those legally representing his estate.
Article 28
(1)  An action for damages must be brought, at the option of the plaintiff, in the territory of one of the High Contracting Parties, either before the court having jurisdiction where the carrier is ordinarily resident, or has his principal place of business, or has an establishment by which the contract has been made or before the court having jurisdiction at the place of destination.
(2)  Questions of procedure shall be governed by the law of the court seised of the case.
Article 29
(1)  The right to damages shall be extinguished if an action is not brought within two years, reckoned from the date of arrival at the destination, or from the date on which the aircraft ought to have arrived, or from the date on which the carriage stopped.
(2)  The method of calculating the period of limitation shall be determined by the law of the court seised of the case.
Article 30
(1)  In the case of carriage to be performed by various successive carriers and falling within the definition set out in the third paragraph of Article 1, each carrier who accepts passengers, baggage or cargo is subjected to the rules set out in this Convention, and is deemed to be one of the contracting parties to the contract of carriage in so far as the contract deals with that part of the carriage which is performed under his supervision.
(2)  In the case of carriage of this nature, the passenger or his representative can take action only against the carrier who performed the carriage during which the accident or the delay occurred, save in the case where, by express agreement, the first carrier has assumed liability for the whole journey.
(3)  As regards baggage or cargo, the passenger or consignor will have a right of action against the first carrier, and the passenger or consignee who is entitled to delivery will have a right of action against the last carrier, and further, each may take action against the carrier who performed the carriage during which the destruction, loss, damage or delay took place. These carriers will be jointly and severally liable to the passenger or to the consignor or consignee.
Chapter IV
Provisions Relating to Combined Carriage
Article 31
(1)  In the case of combined carriage performed partly by air and partly by any other mode of carriage, the provisions of this Convention apply only to the carriage by air, provided that the carriage by air falls within the terms of Article 1.
(2)  Nothing in this Convention shall prevent the parties in the case of combined carriage from inserting in the document of air carriage conditions relating to other modes of carriage, provided that the provisions of this Convention are observed as regards the carriage by air.
Chapter V
General and Final Provisions
Article 32
Any clause contained in the contract and all special agreements entered into before the damage occurred by which the parties purport to infringe the rules laid down by this Convention, whether by deciding the law to be applied, or by altering the rules as to jurisdiction, shall be null and void. Nevertheless for the carriage of cargo arbitration clauses are allowed, subject to this Convention, if the arbitration is to take place within one of the jurisdictions referred to in the first paragraph of Article 28.
Article 33
Nothing contained in this Convention shall prevent the carrier either from refusing to enter into any contract of carriage, or from making regulations which do not conflict with the provisions of this Convention.
Article 34
[The provisions of Articles 3 to 9 inclusive relating to documents of carriage shall not apply in the case of carriage performed in extraordinary circumstances outside the normal scope of an air carrier’s business.]
Article 35
The expression “days” when used in this Convention means current days not working days.
Article 36
The Convention is drawn up in French in a single copy which shall remain deposited in the archives of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Poland and of which one duly certified copy shall be sent by the Polish Government to the Government of each of the High Contracting Parties.
Article 37
(1)  This Convention shall be ratified. The instruments of ratification shall be deposited in the archives of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Poland, which will notify the deposit to the Government of each of the High Contracting Parties.
(2)  As soon as this Convention shall have been ratified by 5 of the High Contracting Parties it shall come into force as between them on the ninetieth day after the deposit of the fifth ratification. Thereafter it shall come into force between the High Contracting Parties who shall have ratified and the High Contracting Party who deposits his instrument of ratification on the ninetieth day after the deposit.
(3)  It shall be the duty of the Government of the Republic of Poland to notify to the Government of each of the High Contracting Parties the date on which this Convention comes into force as well as the date of the deposit of each ratification.
Article 38
(1)  This Convention shall, after it has come into force, remain open for accession by any State.
(2)  The accession shall be effected by a notification addressed to the Government of the Republic of Poland, which will inform the Government of each of the High Contracting Parties thereof.
(3)  The accession shall take effect as from the ninetieth day after the notification made to the Government of the Republic of Poland.
Article 39
(1)  Any one of the High Contracting Parties may denounce this Convention by a notification addressed to the Government of the Republic of Poland, which will at once inform the Government of each of the High Contracting Parties.
(2)  Denunciation shall take effect 6 months after the notification of denunciation, and shall operate only as regards the Party who shall have proceeded to denunciation.
Article 40
(1)  Any High Contracting Party may, at the time of signature or of deposit of ratification or of accession declare that the acceptance which he gives to this Convention does not apply to all or any of his colonies, protectorates, territories under mandate, or any other territory subject to his sovereignty or his authority, or any territory under his suzerainty.
(2)  Accordingly any High Contracting Party may subsequently accede separately in the name of all or any of his colonies, protectorates, territories under mandate or any other territory subject to his sovereignty or to his authority or any territory under his suzerainty which has been thus excluded by his original declaration.
(3)  Any High Contracting Party may denounce this Convention, in accordance with its provisions, separately or for all or any of his colonies, protectorates, territories under mandate or any other territory subject to his sovereignty or to his authority, or any other territory under his suzerainty.
Article 40A
[(1) In Article 37, paragraph (2), and Article 40, paragraph (1), the expression High Contracting Party shall mean State. In all other cases, the expression High Contracting Party shall mean a State whose ratification of or adherence to the Convention has become effective and whose denunciation thereof has not become effective.
(2)  For the purposes of the Convention the word territory means not only the metropolitan territory of a State but also all other territories for the foreign relations of which that State is responsible.]
Article 41
Any High Contracting Party shall be entitled not earlier than two years after the coming into force of this Convention to call for the assembling of a new international Conference in order to consider any improvements which may be made in this Convention. To this end he will communicate with the Government of the French Republic which will take the necessary measures to make preparations for such Conference.
This Convention done at Warsaw on the 12th October 1929, shall remain open for signature until the 31st January 1930.
Additional Protocol
(With reference to Article 2)
The High Contracting Parties reserve to themselves the right to declare at the time of ratification or of accession that paragraph (1) of Article 2 of this Convention shall not apply to international carriage by air performed directly by the State, its colonies, protectorates or mandated territories or by any other territory under its sovereignty, suzerainty or authority.
SECOND SCHEDULE
the Unamended Warsaw Convention
Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules Relating to International Carriage by Air

Chapter I

Scope — Definitions

Article 1
(1)  This Convention applies to all international carriage of persons, baggage or cargo performed by aircraft for reward. It applies equally to gratuitous carriage by aircraft performed by an air transport undertaking.
(2)  For the purposes of this Convention, the expression “international carriage” means any carriage in which, according to the agreement between the parties, the place of departure and the place of destination, whether or not there be a break in the carriage or a transhipment, are situated either within the territories of two High Contracting Parties, or within the territory of a single High Contracting Party, if there is an agreed stopping place within a territory subject to the sovereignty, suzerainty, mandate or authority of another Power, even though that Power is not a party to this Convention. A carriage without such an agreed stopping place between territories subject to the sovereignty, suzerainty, mandate or authority of the same High Contracting Party is not deemed to be international for the purposes of this Convention.
(3)  Carriage to be performed by several successive air carriers is deemed, for the purposes of this Convention, to be one undivided carriage, if it has been regarded by the parties as a single operation, whether it had been agreed upon under the form of a single contract or of a series of contracts, and it does not lose its international character merely because one contract or a series of contracts is to be performed entirely within a territory subject to the sovereignty, suzerainty, mandate or authority of the same High Contracting Party.
Article 2
(1)  The Convention applies to carriage performed by the State or by legally constituted public bodies provided it falls within the conditions laid down in Article 1.
(2)  This Convention does not apply to carriage performed under the terms of any international postal Convention.
Chapter II
Documents of Carriage

Section 1 — Passenger Ticket

Article 3
(1)  For the carriage of passengers the carrier must deliver a passenger ticket which shall contain the following particulars:
(a)
the place and date of issue;
(b)
the place of departure and of destination;
(c)
the agreed stopping places, provided that the carrier may reserve the right to alter the stopping places in case of necessity, and that if he exercises that right, the alteration shall not have the effect of depriving the carriage of its international character;
(d)
the name and address of the carrier or carriers;
(e)
a statement that the carriage is subject to the rules relating to liability established by this Convention.
(2)  The absence, irregularity or loss of the passenger ticket does not affect the existence or the validity of the contract of carriage, which shall none the less be subject to the rules of this Convention. Nevertheless, if the carrier accepts a passenger without a passenger ticket having been delivered he shall not be entitled to avail himself of those provisions of this Convention which exclude or limit his liability.
Section 2 — Baggage Check
Article 4
(1)  For the carriage of baggage, other than small personal objects of which the passenger takes charge himself, the carrier must deliver a baggage check.
(2)  The baggage check shall be made out in duplicate, one part for the passenger and the other part for the carrier.
(3)  The baggage check shall contain the following particulars:
(a)
the place and date of issue;
(b)
the place of departure and of destination;
(c)
the name and address of the carrier or carriers;
(d)
the number of the passenger ticket;
(e)
a statement that delivery of the baggage will be made to the bearer of the baggage check;
(f)
the number and weight of the packages;
(g)
the amount of the value declared in accordance with Article 22(2);
(h)
a statement that the carriage is subject to the rules relating to liability established by this Convention.
(4)  The absence, irregularity or loss of the baggage check does not affect the existence or the validity of the contract of carriage, which shall none the less be subject to the rules of this Convention. Nevertheless, if the carrier accepts baggage without a baggage check having been delivered, or if the baggage check does not contain the particulars set out at (d), (f) and (h) above, the carrier shall not be entitled to avail himself of those provisions of the Convention which exclude or limit his liability.
Section 3 — Air Waybill
Article 5
(1)  Every carrier of cargo has the right to require the consignor to make out and hand over to him a document called an “air waybill”; every consignor has the right to require the carrier to accept this document.
(2)  The absence, irregularity or loss of this document does not affect the existence or the validity of the contract of carriage which shall, subject to the provisions of Article 9, be none the less governed by the rules of this Convention.
Article 6
(1)  The air waybill shall be made out by the consignor in 3 original parts and be handed over with the cargo.
(2)  The first part shall be marked “for the carrier”, and shall be signed by the consignor. The second part shall be marked “for the consignee”; it shall be signed by the consignor and by the carrier and shall accompany the cargo. The third part shall be signed by the carrier and handed by him to the consignor after the cargo has been accepted.
(3)  The carrier shall sign on acceptance of the cargo.
(4)  The signature of the carrier may be stamped; that of the consignor may be printed or stamped.
(5)  If, at the request of the consignor, the carrier makes out the air waybill, he shall be deemed, subject to proof to the contrary, to have done so on behalf of the consignor.
Article 7
The carrier of cargo has the right to require the consignor to make out separate air waybills when there is more than one package.
Article 8
The air waybill shall contain the following particulars:
(a)
the place and date of its execution;
(b)
the place of departure and of destination;
(c)
the agreed stopping places, provided that the carrier may reserve the right to alter the stopping places in case of necessity, and that if he exercises that right the alteration shall not have the effect of depriving the carriage of its international character;
(d)
the name and address of the consignor;
(e)
the name and address of the first carrier;
(f)
the name and address of the consignee, if the case so requires;
(g)
the nature of the cargo;
(h)
the number of the packages, the method of packing and the particular marks or numbers upon them;
(i)
the weight, the quantity and the volume or dimensions of the cargo;
(j)
the apparent condition of the cargo and of the packing;
(k)
the freight, if it has been agreed upon, the date and place of payment, and the person who is to pay it;
(l)
if the cargo is sent for payment on delivery, the price of the cargo, and, if the case so requires, the amount of the expenses incurred;
(m)
the amount of the value declared in accordance with Article 22(2);
(n)
the number of parts of the air waybill;
(o)
the documents handed to the carrier to accompany the air waybill;
(p)
the time fixed for the completion of the carriage and a brief note of the route to be followed, if these matters have been agreed upon;
(q)
a statement that the carriage is subject to the rules relating to liability established by this Convention.
Article 9
If the carrier accepts cargo without an air waybill having been made out, or if the air waybill does not contain all the particulars set out in Article 8(a) to (i) inclusive and (q), the carrier shall not be entitled to avail himself of the provisions of this Convention which exclude or limit his liability.
Article 10
(1)  The consignor is responsible for the correctness of the particulars and statements relating to the cargo which he inserts in the air waybill.
(2)  The consignor will be liable for all damage suffered by the carrier or any other person by reason of the irregularity, incorrectness or incompleteness of the said particulars and statements.
Article 11
(1)  The air waybill is prima facie evidence of the conclusion of the contract, of the receipt of the cargo and of the conditions of carriage.
(2)  The statements in the air waybill relating to the weight, dimensions and packing of the cargo, as well as those relating to the number of packages, are prima facie evidence of the facts stated; those relating to the quantity, volume and condition of the cargo do not constitute evidence against the carrier except so far as they both have been, and are stated in the air waybill to have been checked by him in the presence of the consignor, or relate to the apparent condition of the cargo.
Article 12
(1)  Subject to his liability to carry out all his obligations under the contract of carriage, the consignor has the right to dispose of the cargo by withdrawing it at the aerodrome of departure or destination, or by stopping it in the course of the journey on any landing, or by calling for it to be delivered at the place of destination or in the course of the journey to a person other than the consignee named in the air waybill, or by requiring it to be returned to the aerodrome of departure. He must not exercise this right of disposition in such a way as to prejudice the carrier or other consignors and he must repay any expenses occasioned by the exercise of this right.
(2)  If it is impossible to carry out the orders of the consignor the carrier must so inform him forthwith.
(3)  If the carrier obeys the orders of the consignor for the disposition of the cargo without requiring the production of the part of the air waybill delivered to the latter, he will be liable, without prejudice to his right of recovery from the consignor, for any damage which may be caused thereby to any person who is lawfully in possession of that part of the air waybill.
(4)  The right conferred on the consignor ceases at the moment when that of the consignee begins in accordance with Article 13. Nevertheless, if the consignee declines to accept the air waybill or the cargo, or if he cannot be communicated with, the consignor resumes his right of disposition.
Article 13
(1)  Except in the circumstances set out in the preceding Article, the consignee is entitled, on arrival of the cargo at the place of destination, to require the carrier to hand over to him the air waybill and to deliver the cargo to him, on payment of the charges due and on complying with the conditions of carriage set out in the air waybill.
(2)  Unless it is otherwise agreed, it is the duty of the carrier to give notice to the consignee as soon as the cargo arrives.
(3)  If the carrier admits the loss of the cargo, or if the cargo has not arrived at the expiration of 7 days after the date on which it ought to have arrived, the consignee is entitled to put into force against the carrier the rights which flow from the contract of carriage.
Article 14
The consignor and the consignee can respectively enforce all the rights given them by Articles 12 and 13, each in his own name, whether he is acting in his own interest or in the interest of another, provided that he carries out the obligations imposed by the contract.
Article 15
(1)  Articles 12, 13 and 14 do not affect either the relations of the consignor or the consignee with each other or the mutual relations of third parties whose rights are derived either from the consignor or from the consignee.
(2)  The provisions of Articles 12, 13 and 14 can only be varied by express provision in the air waybill.
Article 16
(1)  The consignor must furnish such information and attach to the air waybill such documents as are necessary to meet the formalities of customs, octroi or police before the cargo can be delivered to the consignee. The consignor is liable to the carrier for any damage occasioned by the absence, insufficiency or irregularity of any such information or documents, unless the damage is due to the fault of the carrier or his servants or agents.
(2)  The carrier is under no obligation to inquire into the correctness or sufficiency of such information or documents.
Chapter III
Liability of the Carrier
Article 17
The carrier is liable for damage sustained in the event of the death or wounding of a passenger or any other bodily injury suffered by a passenger, if the accident which caused the damage so sustained took place on board the aircraft or in the course of any of the operations of embarking or disembarking.
Article 18
(1)  The carrier is liable for damage sustained in the event of the destruction or loss of, or of damage to, any registered baggage or any cargo, if the occurrence which caused the damage so sustained took place during the carriage by air.
(2)  The carriage by air within the meaning of the preceding paragraph comprises the period during which the baggage or cargo is in charge of the carrier, whether in an aerodrome or on board an aircraft, or, in the case of a landing outside an aerodrome, in any place whatsoever.
(3)  The period of the carriage by air does not extend to any carriage by land, by sea or by river performed outside an aerodrome. If, however, such a carriage takes place in the performance of a contract for carriage by air, for the purpose of loading, delivery or transhipment, any damage is presumed, subject to proof to the contrary, to have been the result of an event which took place during the carriage by air.
Article 19
The carrier is liable for damage occasioned by delay in the carriage by air of passengers, baggage or cargo.
Article 20
(1)  The carrier is not liable if he proves that he and his servants and agents have taken all necessary measures to avoid the damage or that it was impossible for him or them to take such measures.
(2)  In the carriage of cargo and baggage the carrier is not liable if he proves that the damage was occasioned by negligent pilotage or negligence in the handling of the aircraft or in navigation and that, in all other respects, he and his agents have taken all necessary measures to avoid the damage.
Article 21
If the carrier proves that the damage was caused by or contributed to by the negligence of the injured person the court may, in accordance with the provisions of its own law, exonerate the carrier wholly or partly from his liability.
Article 22
(1)  In the carriage of passengers the liability of the carrier for each passenger is limited to the sum of 125,000 francs. Where, in accordance with the law of the court seised of the case, damages may be awarded in the form of periodical payments, the equivalent capital value of the said payments shall not exceed 125,000 francs. Nevertheless, by special contract, the carrier and the passenger may agree to a higher limit of liability.
(2)  In the carriage of registered baggage and of cargo, the liability of the carrier is limited to a sum of 250 francs per kilogram, unless the consignor has made, at the time when the package was handed over to the carrier, a special declaration of the value at delivery and has paid a supplementary sum if the case so requires. In that case the carrier will be liable to pay a sum not exceeding the declared sum, unless he proves that that sum is greater than the actual value, to the consignor at delivery.
(3)  As regards objects of which the passenger takes charge himself the liability of the carrier is limited to 5,000 francs per passenger.
(4)  The sums mentioned above shall be deemed to refer to the French franc consisting of 65 1/2 milligrams gold of millesimal fineness 900. These sums may be converted into any national currency in round figures.
Article 23
Any provision tending to relieve the carrier of liability or to fix a lower limit than that which is laid down in this Convention shall be null and void, but the nullity of any such provision does not involve the nullity of the whole contract, which shall remain subject to the provisions of this Convention.
Article 24
(1)  In the cases covered by Articles 18 and 19 any action for damages, however founded, can only be brought subject to the conditions and limits set out in this Convention.
(2)  In the cases covered by Article 17 the provisions of the preceding paragraph also apply, without prejudice to the questions as to who are the persons who have the right to bring suit and what are their respective rights.
Article 25
(1)  The carrier shall not be entitled to avail himself of the provisions of this Convention which exclude or limit his liability, if the damage is caused by his wilful misconduct or by such default on his part as, in accordance with the law of the court seised of the case, is considered to be equivalent to wilful misconduct.
(2)  Similarly the carrier shall not be entitled to avail himself of the said provisions, if the damage is caused as aforesaid by any servant or agent of the carrier acting within the scope of his employment.
Article 26
(1)  Receipt by the person entitled to delivery of baggage or cargo without complaint is prima facie evidence that the same has been delivered in good condition and in accordance with the document of carriage.
(2)  In the case of damage, the person entitled to delivery must complain to the carrier forthwith after the discovery of the damage, and, at the latest, within 3 days from the date of receipt in the case of baggage and 7 days from the date of receipt in the case of cargo. In the case of delay the complaint must be made at the latest within 14 days from the date on which the baggage or cargo has been placed at his disposal.
(3)  Every complaint must be made in writing upon the document of carriage or by separate notice in writing despatched within the times aforesaid.
(4)  Failing complaint within the times aforesaid, no action shall lie against the carrier, save in the case of fraud on his part.
Article 27
In the case of the death of the person liable, an action for damages lies in accordance with the terms of this Convention against those legally representing his estate.
Article 28
(1)  An action for damages must be brought, at the option of the plaintiff, in the territory of one of the High Contracting Parties, either before the court having jurisdiction where the carrier is ordinarily resident, or has his principal place of business, or has an establishment by which the contract has been made or before the court having jurisdiction at the place of destination.
(2)  Questions of procedure shall be governed by the law of the court seised of the case.
Article 29
(1)  The right to damages shall be extinguished if an action is not brought within two years, reckoned from the date of arrival at the destination, or from the date on which the aircraft ought to have arrived, or from the date on which the carriage stopped.
(2)  The method of calculating the period of limitation shall be determined by the law of the court seised of the case.
Article 30
(1)  In the case of carriage to be performed by various successive carriers and falling within the definition set out in the third paragraph of Article 1, each carrier who accepts passengers, baggage or cargo is subjected to the rules set out in this Convention, and is deemed to be one of the contracting parties to the contract of carriage in so far as the contract deals with that part of the carriage which is performed under his supervision.
(2)  In the case of carriage of this nature, the passenger or his representative can take action only against the carrier who performed the carriage during which the accident or the delay occurred, save in the case where, by express agreement, the first carrier has assumed liability for the whole journey.
(3)  As regards baggage or cargo, the passenger or consignor will have a right of action against the first carrier, and the passenger or consignee who is entitled to delivery will have a right of action against the last carrier, and further, each may take action against the carrier who performed the carriage during which the destruction, loss, or damage or delay took place. These carriers will be jointly and severally liable to the passenger or to the consignor or consignee.
Chapter IV
Provisions Relating to Combined Carriage
Article 31
(1)  In the case of combined carriage performed partly by air and partly by any other mode of carriage, the provisions of this Convention apply only to the carriage by air, provided that the carriage by air falls within the terms of Article 1.
(2)  Nothing in this Convention shall prevent the parties in the case of combined carriage from inserting in the document of air carriage conditions relating to other modes of carriage, provided that the provisions of this Convention are observed as regards the carriage by air.
Chapter V
General and Final Provisions
Article 32
Any clause contained in the contract and all special agreements entered into before the damage occurred by which the parties purport to infringe the rules laid down by this Convention, whether by deciding the law to be applied, or by altering the rules as to jurisdiction, shall be null and void. Nevertheless for the carriage of cargo arbitration clauses are allowed, subject to this Convention, if the arbitration is to take place within one of the jurisdictions referred to in the first paragraph of Article 28.
Article 33
Nothing contained in this Convention shall prevent the carrier either from refusing to enter into any contract of carriage, or from making regulations which do not conflict with the provisions of this Convention.
Article 34
This Convention does not apply to international carriage by air performed by way of experimental trial by air navigation undertakings with the view to the establishment of a regular line of air navigation, nor does it apply to carriage performed in extraordinary circumstances outside the normal scope of an air carrier’s business.
Article 35
The expression “days” when used in this Convention means current days not working days.
Article 36
The Convention is drawn up in French in a single copy which shall remain deposited in the archives of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Poland and of which one duly certified copy shall be sent by the Polish Government to the Government of each of the High Contracting Parties.
Article 37
(1)  This Convention shall be ratified. The instruments of ratification shall be deposited in the archives of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Poland, which will notify the deposit to the Government of each of the High Contracting Parties.
(2)  As soon as this Convention shall have been ratified by 5 of the High Contracting Parties it shall come into force as between them on the ninetieth day after the deposit of the fifth ratification. Thereafter it shall come into force between the High Contracting Parties who shall have ratified and the High Contracting Party who deposits his instrument of ratification on the ninetieth day after the deposit.
(3)  It shall be the duty of the Government of the Republic of Poland to notify to the Government of each of the High Contracting Parties the date on which this Convention comes into force as well as the date of the deposit of each ratification.
Article 38
(1)  This Convention shall, after it has come into force, remain open for accession by any State.
(2)  The accession shall be effected by a notification addressed to the Government of the Republic of Poland, which will inform the Government of each of the High Contracting Parties thereof.
(3)  The accession shall take effect as from the ninetieth day after the notification made to the Government of the Republic of Poland.
Article 39
(1)  Any one of the High Contracting Parties may denounce this Convention by a notification addressed to the Government of the Republic of Poland, which will at once inform the Government of each of the High Contracting Parties.
(2)  Denunciation shall take effect six months after the notification of denunciation, and shall operate only as regards the Party who shall have proceeded to denunciation.
Article 40
(1)  Any High Contracting Party may, at the time of signature or of deposit of ratification or of accession declare that the acceptance which he gives to this Convention does not apply to all or any of his colonies, protectorates, territories under mandate, or any other territory subject to his sovereignty or his authority, or any territory under his suzerainty.
(2)  Accordingly any High Contracting Party may subsequently accede separately in the name of all or any of his colonies, protectorates, territories under mandate or any other territory subject to his sovereignty or to his authority or any territory under his suzerainty which has been thus excluded by his original declaration.
(3)  Any High Contracting Party may denounce this Convention, in accordance with its provisions, separately or for all or any of his colonies, protectorates, territories under mandate or any other territory subject to his sovereignty or to his authority, or any other territory under his suzerainty.
Article 41
Any High Contracting Party shall be entitled not earlier than two years after the coming into force of this Convention to call for the assembling of a new international Conference in order to consider any improvements which may be made in this Convention. To this end he will communicate with the Government of the French Republic which will take the necessary measures to make preparations for such Conference.
This Convention done at Warsaw on the 12th October 1929, shall remain open for signature until the 31st January 1930.
Additional Protocol
(With reference to Article 2)
The High Contracting Parties reserve to themselves the right to declare at the time of ratification or of accession that the first paragraph of Article 2 of this Convention shall not apply to international carriage by air performed directly by the State, its colonies, protectorates or mandated territories or by any other territory under its sovereignty, suzerainty or authority.
THIRD SCHEDULE
the Warsaw Convention With the Amendments Made to It by the Hague Protocol and the Montreal Protocol No. 4
(Words in square brackets in the text are words substituted for or added to the Warsaw Convention, as amended by the Hague Protocol, by Chapter I of the Montreal Protocol No. 4)
CONVENTION
for the Unification of Certain Rules Relating to International Carriage by Air

Chapter I
Scope — Definitions

Article 1
(1)  This Convention applies to all international carriage of persons, baggage or cargo performed by aircraft for reward. It applies equally to gratuitous carriage by aircraft performed by an air transport undertaking.
(2)  For the purposes of this Convention, the expression international carriage means any carriage in which, according to the agreement between the parties, the place of departure and the place of destination, whether or not there be a break in the carriage or a transhipment, are situated either within the territories of two High Contracting Parties or within the territory of a single High Contracting Party if there is an agreed stopping place within the territory of another State, even if that State is not a High Contracting Party. Carriage between two points within the territory of a single High Contracting Party without an agreed stopping place within the territory of another State is not international carriage for the purposes of this Convention.
(3)  Carriage to be performed by several successive air carriers is deemed, for the purposes of this Convention, to be one undivided carriage if it has been regarded by the parties as a single operation, whether it had been agreed upon under the form of a single contract or of a series of contracts, and it does not lose its international character merely because one contract or a series of contracts is to be performed entirely within the territory of the same State.
Article 2
(1)  This Convention applies to carriage performed by the State or by legally constituted public bodies provided it falls within the conditions laid down in Article 1.
[(2) In the carriage of postal items the carrier shall be liable only to the relevant postal administration in accordance with the rules applicable to the relationship between the carriers and the postal administrations.
(3)  Except as provided in paragraph (2) of this Article, the provisions of this Convention shall not apply to the carriage of postal items.]
Chapter II
Documents of Carriage

Section 1 — Passenger Ticket

Article 3
(1)  In respect of the carriage of passengers a ticket shall be delivered containing:
(a)
an indication of the places of departure and destination;
(b)
if the places of departure and destination are within the territory of a single High Contracting Party, one or more agreed stopping places being within the territory of another State, an indication of at least one such stopping place;
(c)
a notice to the effect that, if the passenger’s journey involves an ultimate destination or stop in a country other than the country of departure, the Warsaw Convention may be applicable and that the Convention governs and in most cases limits the liability of carriers for death or personal injury and in respect of loss of or damage to baggage.
(2)  The passenger ticket shall constitute prima facie evidence of the conclusion and conditions of the contract of carriage. The absence, irregularity or loss of the passenger ticket does not affect the existence or the validity of the contract of carriage which shall, nonetheless, be subject to the rules of this Convention. Nevertheless, if, with the consent of the carrier, the passenger embarks without a passenger ticket having been delivered, or if the ticket does not include the notice required by paragraph (1) (c) of this Article, the carrier shall not be entitled to avail himself of the provisions of Article 22.
Section 2 — Baggage Check
Article 4
(1)  In respect of the carriage of registered baggage, a baggage check shall be delivered, which, unless combined with or incorporated in a passenger ticket which complies with the provisions of Article 3, paragraph (1), shall contain:
(a)
an indication of the places of departure and destination;
(b)
if the places of departure and destination are within the territory of a single High Contracting Party, one or more agreed stopping places being within the territory of another State, an indication of at least one such stopping place;
(c)
a notice to the effect that, if the carriage involves an ultimate destination or stop in a country other than the country of departure, the Warsaw Convention may be applicable and that the Convention governs and in most cases limits the liability of carriers in respect of loss of or damage to baggage.
(2)  The baggage check shall constitute prima facie evidence of the registration of the baggage and of the conditions of the contract of carriage. The absence, irregularity or loss of the baggage check does not affect the existence or the validity of the contract of carriage which shall, nonetheless, be subject to the rules of this Convention. Nevertheless, if the carrier takes charge of the baggage without a baggage check having been delivered or if the baggage check (unless combined with or incorporated in the passenger ticket which complies with the provisions of Article 3, paragraph (1) (c)) does not include the notice required by paragraph (1) (c) of this Article, he shall not be entitled to avail himself of the provisions of Article 22, paragraph (2).
[section 3 — Documentation Relating to Cargo
Article 5
(1)  In respect of the carriage of cargo an air waybill shall be delivered.
(2)  Any other means which would preserve a record of the carriage to be performed may, with the consent of the consignor, be substituted for the delivery of an air waybill. If such other means are used, the carrier shall, if so requested by the consignor, deliver to the consignor a receipt for the cargo permitting identification of the consignment and access to the information contained in the record preserved by such other means.
(3)  The impossibility of using, at points of transit and destination, the other means which would preserve the record of the carriage referred to in paragraph (2) of this Article does not entitle the carrier to refuse to accept the cargo for carriage.
Article 6
(1)  The air waybill shall be made out by the consignor in three original parts.
(2)  The first part shall be marked “for the carrier”; it shall be signed by the consignor. The second part shall be marked “for the consignee”; it shall be signed by the consignor and by the carrier. The third part shall be signed by the carrier and handed by him to the consignor after the cargo has been accepted.
(3)  The signature of the carrier and that of the consignor may be printed or stamped.
(4)  If, at the request of the consignor, the carrier makes out the air waybill, he shall be deemed, subject to proof to the contrary, to have done so on behalf of the consignor.
Article 7
When there is more than one package:
(a)
the carrier of cargo has the right to require the consignor to make out separate air waybills;
(b)
the consignor has the right to require the carrier to deliver separate receipts when the other means referred to in paragraph (2) of Article 5 are used.
Article 8
The air waybill and the receipt for the cargo shall contain:
(a)
an indication of the places of departure and destination;
(b)
if the places of departure and destination are within the territory of a single High Contracting Party, one or more agreed stopping places being within the territory of another State, an indication of at least one such stopping place; and
(c)
an indication of the weight of the consignment.
Article 9
Non-compliance with the provisions of Articles 5 to 8 shall not affect the existence or the validity of the contract of carriage, which shall, nonetheless, be subject to the rules of this Convention including those relating to limitation of liability.
Article 10
(1)  The consignor is responsible for the correctness of the particulars and statements relating to the cargo inserted by him or on his behalf in the air waybill or furnished by him or on his behalf to the carrier for insertion in the receipt for the cargo or for insertion in the record preserved by the other means referred to in paragraph (2) of Article 5.
(2)  The consignor shall indemnify the carrier against all damage suffered by him, or by any other person to whom the carrier is liable, by reason of the irregularity, incorrectness or incompleteness of the particulars and statements furnished by the consignor or on his behalf.
(3)  Subject to the provisions of paragraphs (1) and (2) of this Article, the carrier shall indemnify the consignor against all damage suffered by him, or by any other person to whom the consignor is liable, by reason of the irregularity, incorrectness or incompleteness of the particulars and statements inserted by the carrier or on his behalf in the receipt for the cargo or in the record preserved by the other means referred to in paragraph (2) of Article 5.
Article 11
(1)  The air waybill or the receipt for the cargo is prima facie evidence of the conclusion of the contract, of the acceptance of the cargo and of the conditions of carriage mentioned therein.
(2)  Any statements in the air waybill or the receipt for the cargo relating to the weight, dimensions and packing of the cargo, as well as those relating to the number of packages, are prima facie evidence of the facts stated; those relating to the quantity, volume and condition of the cargo do not constitute evidence against the carrier except so far as they both have been, and are stated in the air waybill to have been, checked by him in the presence of the consignor, or relate to the apparent condition of the cargo.
Article 12
(1)  Subject to his liability to carry out all his obligations under the contract of carriage, the consignor has the right to dispose of the cargo by withdrawing it at the airport of departure or destination, or by stopping it in the course of the journey on any landing, or by calling for it to be delivered at the place of destination or in the course of the journey to a person other than the consignee originally designated, or by requiring it to be returned to the airport of departure. He must not exercise this right of disposition in such a way as to prejudice the carrier or other consignors and he must repay any expenses occasioned by the exercise of this right.
(2)  If it is impossible to carry out the orders of the consignor the carrier must so inform him forthwith.
(3)  If the carrier obeys the orders of the consignor for the disposition of the cargo without requiring the production of the part of the air waybill or the receipt for the cargo delivered to the latter, he will be liable, without prejudice to his right of recovery from the consignor, for any damage which may be caused thereby to any person who is lawfully in possession of that part of the air waybill or the receipt for the cargo.
(4)  The right conferred on the consignor ceases at the moment when that of the consignee begins in accordance with Article 13. Nevertheless, if the consignee declines to accept the cargo, or if he cannot be communicated with, the consignor resumes his right of disposition.
Article 13
(1)  Except when the consignor has exercised his right under Article 12, the consignee is entitled, on arrival of the cargo at the place of destination, to require the carrier to deliver the cargo to him, on payment of the charges due and on complying with the conditions of carriage.
(2)  Unless it is otherwise agreed, it is the duty of the carrier to give notice to the consignee as soon as the cargo arrives.
(3)  If the carrier admits the loss of the cargo, or if the cargo has not arrived at the expiration of seven days after the date on which it ought to have arrived, the consignee is entitled to enforce against the carrier the rights which flow from the contract of carriage.
Article 14
The consignor and the consignee can respectively enforce all the rights given to them by Articles 12 and 13, each in his own name, whether he is acting in his own interest or in the interest of another, provided that he carries out the obligations imposed by the contract of carriage.
Article 15
(1)  Articles 12, 13 and 14 do not affect either the relations of the consignor and the consignee with each other or the mutual relations of third parties whose rights are derived either from the consignor or from the consignee.
(2)  The provisions of Articles 12, 13 and 14 can only be varied by express provision in the air waybill or the receipt for the cargo.
Article 16
(1)  The consignor must furnish such information and such documents as are necessary to meet the formalities of customs, octroi or police before the cargo can be delivered to the consignee. The consignor is liable to the carrier for any damage occasioned by the absence, insufficiency or irregularity of any such information or documents, unless the damage is due to the fault of the carrier, his servants or agents.
(2)  The carrier is under no obligation to enquire into the correctness or sufficiency of such information or documents.]
Chapter III
Liability of the Carrier
Article 17
The carrier is liable for damage sustained in the event of the death or wounding of a passenger or any other bodily injury suffered by a passenger, if the accident which caused the damage so sustained took place on board the aircraft or in the course of any of the operations of embarking or disembarking.
[Article 18
(1)  The carrier is liable for damage sustained in the event of the destruction or loss of, or damage to, any registered baggage, if the occurrence which caused the damage so sustained took place during the carriage by air.
(2)  The carrier is liable for damage sustained in the event of the destruction or loss of, or damage to, cargo upon condition only that the occurrence which caused the damage so sustained took place during the carriage by air.
(3)  However, the carrier is not liable if he proves that the destruction, loss of, or damage to, the cargo resulted solely from one or more of the following:
(a)
inherent defect, quality or vice of that cargo;
(b)
defective packaging of that cargo performed by a person other than the carrier or his servants or agents;
(c)
an act of war or an armed conflict;
(d)
an act of public authority carried out in connexion with the entry, exit or transit of the cargo.
(4)  The carriage by air within the meaning of the preceding paragraphs of this Article comprises the period during which the baggage or cargo is in the charge of the carrier, whether in an airport or on board an aircraft, or, in the case of a landing outside an airport, in any place whatsoever.
(5)  The period of the carriage by air does not extend to any carriage by land, by sea or by river performed outside an airport. If, however, such carriage takes place in the performance of a contract for carriage by air, for the purpose of loading, delivery or transhipment, any damage is presumed, subject to proof to the contrary, to have been the result of an event which took place during the carriage by air.]
Article 19
The carrier is liable for damage occasioned by delay in the carriage by air of passengers, baggage or cargo.
[Article 20
In the carriage of passengers and baggage, and in the case of damage occasioned by delay in the carriage of cargo, the carrier shall not be liable if he proves that he and his servants and agents have taken all necessary measures to avoid the damage or that it was impossible for them to take such measures.]
[Article 21
(1)  In the carriage of passengers and baggage, if the carrier proves that the damage was caused by or contributed to by the negligence of the person suffering the damage the Court may, in accordance with the provisions of its own law, exonerate the carrier wholly or partly from his liability.
(2)  In the carriage of cargo, if the carrier proves that the damage was caused by or contributed to by the negligence or other wrongful act or omission of the person claiming compensation, or the person from whom he derives his rights, the carrier shall be wholly or partly exonerated from his liability to the claimant to the extent that such negligence or wrongful act or omission caused or contributed to the damage.]
Article 22
(1)  In the carriage of persons the liability of the carrier for each passenger is limited to the sum of 250,000 francs. Where, in accordance with the law of the court seised of the case, damages may be awarded in the form of periodical payments, the equivalent capital value of the said payments shall not exceed 250,000 francs. Nevertheless, by special contract, the carrier and the passenger may agree to a higher limit of liability.
(2)    (a)  In the carriage of registered baggage, the liability of the carrier is limited to a sum of 250 francs per kilogramme, unless the passenger or consignor has made, at the time when the package was handed over to the carrier, a special declaration of interest in delivery at destination and has paid a supplementary sum if the case so requires. In that case the carrier will be liable to pay a sum not exceeding the declared sum, unless he proves that that sum is greater than the passenger’s or consignor’s actual interest in delivery at destination.
[(b) In the carriage of cargo, the liability of the carrier is limited to a sum of 17 Special Drawing Rights per kilogramme, unless the consignor has made, at the time when the package was handed over to the carrier, a special declaration of interest in delivery at destination and has paid a supplementary sum if the case so requires. In that case the carrier will be liable to pay a sum not exceeding the declared sum, unless he proves that the sum is greater than the consignor’s actual interest in delivery at destination.]
[(c) In the case of loss, damage or delay of part of registered baggage or cargo, or of any object contained therein, the weight to be taken into consideration in determining the amount to which the carrier’s liability is limited shall be only the total weight of the package or packages concerned. Nevertheless, when the loss, damage or delay of a part of the registered baggage or cargo or of an object contained therein, affects the value of other packages covered by the same baggage check or the same air waybill, the total weight of such package or packages shall also be taken into consideration in determining the limit of liability.]
(3)  As regards objects of which the passenger takes charge himself the liability of the carrier is limited to 5,000 francs per passenger.
(4)  The limits prescribed in this Article shall not prevent the court from awarding, in accordance with its own law, in addition, the whole or part of the court costs and of the other expenses of the litigation incurred by the plaintiff. The foregoing provision shall not apply if the amount of the damages awarded, excluding court costs and other expenses of the litigation, does not exceed the sum which the carrier has offered in writing to the plaintiff within a period of 6 months from the date of the occurrence causing the damage, or before the commencement of the action, if that is later.
(5)  The sums mentioned in francs in this Article shall be deemed to refer to a currency unit consisting of 65 1/2 milligrammes of gold of millesimal fineness 900. These sums may be converted into national currencies in round figures. Conversion of the sums into national currencies other than gold shall, in case of judicial proceedings, be made according to the gold value of such currencies at the date of the judgment.
[(6) The sums mentioned in the terms of the Special Drawing Right in this Article shall be deemed to refer to the Special Drawing Right as defined by the International Monetary Fund. Conversion of the sums into national currencies shall, in case of judicial proceedings, be made according to the value of such currencies in terms of the Special Drawing Right at the date of the judgment. The value of a national currency, in terms of the Special Drawing Right, of a High Contracting Party which is a Member of the International Monetary Fund, shall be calculated in accordance with the method of valuation applied by the International Monetary Fund, in effect at the date of the judgment, for its operations and transactions. The value of a national currency, in terms of the Special Drawing Right, of a High Contracting Party which is not a Member of the International Monetary Fund, shall be calculated in a manner determined by that High Contracting Party. Nevertheless, those States which are not Members of the International Monetary Fund and whose law does not permit the application of the provisions of paragraph (2) (b) of Article 22 may, at the time of ratification or accession or at any time thereafter, declare that the limit of liability of the carrier in judicial proceedings in their territories is fixed at a sum of two hundred and fifty monetary units per kilogramme. This monetary unit corresponds to sixty-five and a half milligrammes of gold of millesimal fineness 900. This sum may be converted into the national currency concerned in round figures. The conversion of this sum into the national currency shall be made according to the law of the State concerned.]
Article 23
(1)  Any provision tending to relieve the carrier of liability or to fix a lower limit than that which is laid down in this Convention shall be null and void, but the nullity of any such provision does not involve the nullity of the whole contract, which shall remain subject to the provisions of this Convention.
(2)  Paragraph (1) of this Article shall not apply to provisions governing loss or damage resulting from the inherent defect, quality or vice of the cargo carried.
[Article 24
(1)  In the carriage of passengers and baggage, any action for damages, however founded, can only be brought subject to the conditions and limits set out in this Convention, without prejudice to the question as to who are the persons who have the right to bring suit and what are their respective rights.
(2)  In the carriage of cargo, any action for damages, however, founded whether under this Convention or in contract or in tort or otherwise, can only be brought subject to the conditions and limits of liability set out in this Convention without prejudice to the question as to who are the persons who have the right to bring suit and what are their respective rights. Such limits of liability constitute maximum limits and may not be exceeded whatever the circumstances which gave rise to the liability.]
[Article 25
In the carriage of passengers and baggage, the limits of liability specified in Article 22 shall not apply if it is proved that the damage resulted from an act or omission of the carrier, his servants or agents, done with intent to cause damage or recklessly and with knowledge that damage would probably result; provided that, in the case of such act or omission of a servant or agent, it is also proved that he was acting within the scope of his employment.]
Article 25A
(1)  If an action is brought against a servant or agent of the carrier arising out of damage to which this Convention relates, such servant or agent, if he proves that he acted within the scope of his employment, shall be entitled to avail himself of the limits of liability which that carrier himself is entitled to invoke under Article 22.
(2)  The aggregate of the amounts recoverable from the carrier, his servants and agents, in that case, shall not exceed the said limits.
[(3) In the carriage of passengers and baggage, the provisions of paragraphs (1) and (2) of this Article shall not apply if it is proved that the damage resulted from an act or omission of the servant or agent done with intent to cause damage or recklessly and with knowledge that damage would probably result.]
Article 26
(1)  Receipt by the person entitled to delivery of baggage or cargo without complaint is prima facie evidence that the same has been delivered in good condition and in accordance with the document of carriage.
(2)  In the case of damage, the person entitled to delivery must complain to the carrier forthwith after the discovery of the damage, and, at the latest, within 7 days from the date of receipt in the case of baggage and 14 days from the date of receipt in the case of cargo. In the case of delay the complaint must be made at the latest within 21 days from the date on which the baggage or cargo has been placed at his disposal.
(3)  Every complaint must be made in writing upon the document of carriage or by separate notice in writing despatched within the times aforesaid.
(4)  Failing complaint within the times aforesaid, no action shall lie against the carrier, save in the case of fraud on his part.
Article 27
In the case of the death of the person liable, an action for damages lies in accordance with the terms of this Convention against those legally representing his estate.
Article 28
(1)  An action for damages must be brought, at the option of the plaintiff, in the territory of one of the High Contracting Parties, either before the court having jurisdiction where the carrier is ordinarily resident, or has his principal place of business, or has an establishment by which the contract has been made or before the court having jurisdiction at the place of destination.
(2)  Questions of procedure shall be governed by the law of the court seised of the case.
Article 29
(1)  The right to damages shall be extinguished if an action is not brought within two years, reckoned from the date of arrival at the destination, or from the date on which the aircraft ought to have arrived, or from the date on which the carriage stopped.
(2)  The method of calculating the period of limitation shall be determined by the law of the court seised of the case.
Article 30
(1)  In the case of carriage to be performed by various successive carriers and falling within the definition set out in the third paragraph of Article 1, each carrier who accepts passengers, baggage or cargo is subjected to the rules set out in this Convention, and is deemed to be one of the contracting parties to the contract of carriage in so far as the contract deals with that part of the carriage which is performed under his supervision.
(2)  In the case of carriage of this nature, the passenger or his representative can take action only against the carrier who performed the carriage during which the accident or the delay occurred, save in the case where, by express agreement, the first carrier has assumed liability for the whole journey.
(3)  As regards baggage or cargo, the passenger or consignor will have a right of action against the first carrier, and the passenger or consignee who is entitled to delivery will have a right of action against the last carrier, and further, each may take action against the carrier who performed the carriage during which the destruction, loss, damage or delay took place. These carriers will be jointly and severally liable to the passenger or to the consignor or consignee.
[Article 30A
Nothing in this Convention shall prejudice the question whether a person liable for damage in accordance with its provisions has a right of recourse against any other person.]
Chapter IV
Provisions Relating to Combined Carriage
Article 31
(1)  In the case of combined carriage performed partly by air and partly by any other mode of carriage, the provisions of this Convention apply only to the carriage by air, provided that the carriage by air falls within the terms of Article 1.
(2)  Nothing in this Convention shall prevent the parties in the case of combined carriage from inserting in the document of air carriage conditions relating to other modes of carriage, provided that the provisions of this Convention are observed as regards the carriage by air.
Chapter V
General and Final Provisions
Article 32
Any clause contained in the contract and all special agreements entered into before the damage occurred by which the parties purport to infringe the rules laid down by this Convention, whether by deciding the law to be applied, or by altering the rules as to jurisdiction, shall be null and void. Nevertheless for the carriage of cargo arbitration clauses are allowed, subject to this Convention, if the arbitration is to take place within one of the jurisdiction referred to in the first paragraph of Article 28.
[Article 33
Except as provided in paragraph (3) of Article 5, nothing in this Convention shall prevent the carrier either from refusing to enter into any contract of carriage or from making regulations which do not conflict with the provisions of this Convention.]
[Article 34
The provisions of Articles 3 to 8 inclusive relating to documents of carriage shall not apply in the case of carriage performed in extraordinary circumstances outside the normal scope of an air carrier’s business.]
Article 35
The expression “days” when used in this Convention means current days not working days.
Article 36
The Convention is drawn up in French in a single copy which shall remain deposited in the archives of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Poland and of which one duly certified copy shall be sent by the Polish Government to the Government of each of the High Contracting Parties.
Article 37
(1)  This Convention shall be ratified. The instruments of ratification shall be deposited in the archives of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Poland, which will notify the deposit to the Government of each of the High Contracting Parties.
(2)  As soon as this Convention shall have been ratified by 5 of the High Contracting Parties it shall come into force as between them on the ninetieth day after the deposit of the fifth ratification. Thereafter it shall come into force between the High Contracting Parties who shall have ratified and the High Contracting Party who deposits his instrument of ratification on the ninetieth day after the deposit.
(3)  It shall be the duty of the Government of the Republic of Poland to notify to the Government of each of the High Contracting Parties the date on which this Convention comes into force as well as the date of the deposit of each ratification.
Article 38
(1)  This Convention shall, after it has come into force, remain open for accession by any State.
(2)  The accession shall be effected by a notification addressed to the Government of the Republic of Poland, which will inform the Government of each of the High Contracting Parties thereof.
(3)  The accession shall take effect as from the ninetieth day after the notification made to the Government of the Republic of Poland.
Article 39
(1)  Any one of the High Contracting Parties may denounce this Convention by a notification addressed to the Government of the Republic of Poland, which will at once inform the Government of each of the High Contracting Parties.
(2)  Denunciation shall take effect 6 months after the notification of denunciation, and shall operate only as regards the Party who shall have proceeded to denunciation.
Article 40
(1)  Any High Contracting Party may, at the time of signature or of deposit of ratification or of accession declare that the acceptance which he gives to this Convention does not apply to all or any of his colonies, protectorates, territories under mandate, or any other territory subject to his sovereignty or his authority, or any territory under his suzerainty.
(2)  Accordingly any High Contracting Party may subsequently accede separately in the name of all or any of his colonies, protectorates, territories under mandate or any other territory subject to his sovereignty or to his authority or any territory under his suzerainty which has been thus excluded by his original declaration.
(3)  Any High Contracting Party may denounce this Convention, in accordance with its provisions, separately or for all or any of his colonies, protectorates, territories under mandate or any other territory subject to his sovereignty or to his authority, or any other territory under his suzerainty.
Article 40A
(1)  In Article 37, paragraph (2), and Article 40, paragraph (1), the expression High Contracting Party shall mean State. In all other cases, the expression High Contracting Party shall mean a State whose ratification of or adherence to the Convention has become effective and whose denunciation thereof has not become effective.
(2)  For the purposes of the Convention the word territory means not only the metropolitan territory of a State but also all other territories for the foreign relations of which that State is responsible.
Article 41
Any High Contracting Party shall be entitled not earlier than two years after the coming into force of this Convention to call for the assembling of a new international Conference in order to consider any improvements which may be made in this Convention. To this end he will communicate with the Government of the French Republic which will take the necessary measures to make preparations for such Conference.
This Convention done at Warsaw on the 12th October 1929, shall remain open for signature until the 31st January 1930.
Additional Protocol
(With reference to Article 2)
The High Contracting Parties reserve to themselves the right to declare at the time of ratification or of accession that paragraph (1) of Article 2 of this Convention shall not apply to international carriage by air performed directly by the State, its colonies, protectorates or mandated territories or by any other territory under its sovereignty, suzerainty or authority.

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY

Carriage by Air Act
(CHAPTER 32A)
This Legislative History is provided for the convenience of users of the Carriage by Air Act. It is not part of this Act.
1.  
Date of First Reading
:
29 July 1988
(Bill No. 17/1988 published on 1 August 1988)
Date of Second and Third Readings
:
11 August 1988
Date of commencement
:
16 September 1988
2.  
Date of operation
:
15 March 1989
3.  
Date of First Reading
:
20 January 1999
(Bill No. 5/1999 published on 21 January 1999)
Date of Second and Third Readings
:
11 February 1999
Date of commencement
:
12 September 1998
4.  
(Consequential amendments made by)
Date of First Reading
:
12 October 1998
(Bill No. 41/1998 published on 13 October 1998)
Date of Second and Third Readings
:
26 November 1998
Date of commencement
:
1 January 1999
5.  
Date of operation
:
31 December 2001

COMPARATIVE TABLE

Carriage by Air Act
(CHAPTER 32A)

The following provisions in the 1989 Revised Edition of the Carriage of Air Act have been renumbered by the Law Revision Commissioners in this 2001 Revised Edition.

This Comparative Table is provided for the convenience of users. It is not part of the Carriage of Air Act.

2001 Ed.
 
1989 Ed.
Omitted
 
3—(3)
11—(1) and (2)
 
11