—(1) If there is no reply to a defence, there is an implied joinder of issue on that defence.
(2) Subject to paragraph (3) —
there is at the close of pleadings an implied joinder of issue on the pleading last served; and
a party may in his pleading expressly join issue on the next preceding pleading.
(3) There can be no joinder of issue, implied or express, on a statement of claim or counterclaim.
(4) A joinder of issue operates as a denial of every material allegation of fact made in the pleading on which there is an implied or express joinder of issue unless, in the case of an express joinder of issue, any such allegation is excepted from the joinder and is stated to be admitted, in which case the express joinder of issue operates as a denial of every other such allegation.